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Alloying steel in addition to iron and carbon, adding other alloy elements, is called alloy steel. An iron carbon alloy consisting of one or more alloying elements on the basis of ordinary carbon steel. Special properties such as high strength, high toughness, abrasion resistance, corrosion resistance, low temperature resistance, high temperature resistance and non-magnetism can be obtained by adopting proper processing technology according to the different added elements.
Alloy steel has a history of more than 100 years. More steel is used in industry than in the latter half of nineteenth Century.
In 1868, R.F. Mushet, an Englishman, invented self-hardening steel with a composition of 2.5% Mn-7% W, which increased the cutting speed to 5 m/min.
In 1870, a 158.5-metre bridge was built on the Mississippi River with chrome steel (1.5-2.0% Cr) in the United States; later, some industrial countries used nickel steel (3.5% Ni) to build long-span bridges or to repair warships.
In 1901, high carbon chromium bearing steel was developed in Western Europe.
In 1910, S-4Cr-1V high speed tool steel was developed, and the cutting speed was further increased to 30 m/min.
After 1920s, stainless steel and heat resistant steel came out during this period.
In 1920, German Maurer (E.Maurer) invented the 18-8 type stainless acid resistant steel.
In 1929, Fe-Cr-Al resistance wire appeared in the US.
In 1939, Germany began to use austenitic heat-resistant steel in the power industry.